Tehreek Nifaz-e-Shariat Mohammadi


Tehreek Nifaz-e-Shariat Mohammadi

The Tehreek Nifaz-e-Shariat Mohammadi (TNSM) was created in 1994 by Sufi Mohammad. Its goal was to enforce Sharia law in the Malakand division of Pakistan (a region including the Swat Valley).

That same year, the group forceibly took over several government functions in Swat. After 2001, the return of many young combatants from Afghanistan and the replacement of Sufi Mohammad by his son in law, Maulana Fazlullah, led to a series of occasional battles with the police and the armed forces. After 2007, it nevertheless benefitted from the unofficial support of the Musharraf government in order to embarrass the provincial government of the North West Frontier Province, now Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.

The TNSM was, however, kept under relative control until 2009, when it seized control of a sizeable portion of Swat before being pushed out by the army.

Frederic Grare, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Director and Senior Associate, South Asia Program